Various methods of contraception are in use. They are:
a. Physical barriers: These methods provide a barrier to the fusion of gametes by physical means. Example: Condom.
They are the best methods for contraception as they do not cause any side effect and also prevent sexually transmitted diseases.
b. Hormonal contraception: These medicines prevent the release of an ovum by altering the hormones. e.g. Mala-D.
c. Emergency pills: These pills prevent the implantation of the zygote in the uterus. These pills also work by changing the hormone balance, but they are taken only in case of failure of other contraceptive methods or forced sex. e.g. I-pill, Unwanted-72.
d. Long term contraception methods (IUD’s): These are physical devices which prevent pregnancy by chemical means. These devices release chemical compounds which kill the sperms or decreases their motility. An example is Copper-T.
e. Surgical methods: In these methods include surgical closure of either the vas deferens in male or fallopian tube in the female. These are the permanent method.